Erling Pedersen was educated by Erling Møldrup at The Royal Danish Academy of Music in Aarhus. He graduated with a Diploma in 1985. During his time at the conservatory, Erling Pedersen also took lessons in composition by Tage Nielsen. He has participated in several masterclasses by for instance Hubert Kaeppel, Oscar Ghiglia and Julian Bream.
His compositional style is very diverse. In his younger years, he was under much influence by composers such as Per Nørgaard, Axel Borup Jørgensen and serialism in general. Nowadays he seems almost ”traditional” in his works with significant impact from the renaissance and has what some would call a folkloristic Nordic lyrical voice. Besides music for the guitar, he has also composed several pieces of chamber music for string quartets, flute, and mixed ensembles.